fbpx

Stand Up For Public Access

Writers on the Range


Eighty-year-old Roger Hill used to go fishing on the Arkansas River in Colorado. But he sometimes had to duck baseball-size rocks thrown at him by landowners who insisted he was trespassing. When he got back to his car, he sometimes found notes threatening him with arrest if he returned. Worse, a fellow fisherman was shot at by a landowner, who got 30 days in jail for the attack.

Rather than risking either injury or arrest, Hill sued the landowners, claiming that the bed of the Arkansas River is navigable. If that assumption is true, then Hill can legally stand on the riverbed and fish.

But Roger Hill’s fight is not just about his right to fish. It is about pushing back against the creeping tide of wealth-driven privatization that seeks to deny public access to our waterways and other public resources.

Here’s Hill’s case in a nutshell: When Colorado became a state in 1876, it entered the Union on an “equal footing” with other states. Among other things, the equal footing doctrine gives states title to the beds of all navigable streams within their borders.

As the U.S. Supreme Court explained in a case called Illinois Central Railroad v. Illinois, “it is a title different in character from that which the state holds in lands intended for sale….It is a title held in trust for the people of the state, that they may enjoy the navigation of the waters, carry on commerce over them,and have liberty of fishing therein, freed from the obstruction or interference of private parties.”

History buffs might be interested to know that these public rights in navigable waterways date back at least to the time of the Roman Empire. 

You might assume that Colorado would join this case on Hill’s side. Instead, the opposite happened. Attorney General Phil Weiser, a Democrat, joined the case on the side of the private landowners and has moved aggressively against Hill, seeking not just to deny his right to fish from the bed of the river, but also to claim that Hill doesn’t have the right to even be in court. 

At various times, Attorney General Weiser has somewhat astoundingly argued that there are no navigable rivers in Colorado, and that even if there were, the state may deny public access to navigable riverbeds. So much for the Supreme Court’s holding that the State holds title to the bed of navigable streams “in trust for the people, that they may … have the liberty of fishing therein.

In Colorado, opportunities to get outside and explore are celebrated. For that reason, it is alarming that the state’s Attorney General seeks to deny public access to Colorado’s navigable waterways. If he were to prevail, Colorado would be alone among the 50 states — including all of its Western neighbors — in denying these rights.

Recently, the Colorado Court of Appeals offered Roger Hill a glimmer of hope that Attorney General Weiser can be stopped. The court held that Hill has standing to pursue his claim in state court and made the important finding thatIf “the relevant segment of the river wasnavigable at statehood, then the … defendants do not own the riverbed and would have no right to exclude [Hill] from it by threats of physical violence or prosecution for trespass.”

Although it seems unlikely, Attorney General Weiser now has an opportunity to switch sides and support public rights in navigable waterways, including Roger Hill’s right to fish while wading the bed of the Arkansas River.  Coloradans should expect and demand that he do so.

The Colorado Constitution proclaims that “water of every natural stream … within the state of Colorado, is … the property of the public…” When the framers dedicated Colorado’s natural streams to “the use of the people” they surely did not expect that the state’s attorney general would aggressively try to block public use.

Roger Hill’s fight is everyone’s fight. Let’s hope that he prevails.

Mark Squillace
Mark Squillace

Professor Mark Squillace joined the faculty at the University of Colorado Law School in 2005 where he served as the Director of the Natural Resources Law Center until 2013. Before joining the Colorado law faculty, Professor Squillace taught at the University of Toledo College of Law where he was named the Charles Fornoff Professor of Law and Values. Professor Squillace has also taught at the University of Wyoming College of Law, and at Wyoming he served a three-year term as the Winston S. Howard Professor of Law. He is a former Fulbright scholar and the author or co-author of numerous articles and books on natural resources and environmental law. In 2000, Professor Squillace took a leave from law teaching to serve as Special Assistant to the Solicitor at the U.S. Department of the Interior. In that capacity he worked directly with the Secretary of the Interior, Bruce Babbitt, on a wide range of legal and policy issues.

Published by Four Points Press

Support Indigenous local journalism. Four Points Media Inc is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Tax deductible contributions are graciously accepted.